The Air Force and Herbicides in Southeast Asia 1961 - 1971
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U.S. use of nuclear weapons against Japan during World War II has long been a subject of emotional debate. Initially, few questioned President Truman’s decision to drop two atomic bombs, on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. But, in 1965, historian Gar Alperovitz argued that, although the bombs did force an immediate end to the war, Japan’s leaders had wanted to surrender anyway and likely would have done so before the American invasion planned for November 1. Their use was, therefore, unnecessary.
This article challenges the perceived image of ‘traditional’ Vietnam by viewing the polity’s early history from the sea. A trading zone existed in the Gulf of Tonkin area, stretching to Hainan Island and northern Champa by sea, and overland to Yunnan and Laos. Commerce and interactions of peoples in this area played a crucial part in state formation for Vietnam.
The Asia Maritime Transparency Initiative, partners of the Center for Strategic and International Studies, is an interactive, regularly-updated source for information, analysis, and policy exchange on maritime security issues in Asia. Below are 18 republished maps from their report (and here is the full analysis and methodology).
Vietnamese and world history matter to each other. Yet, the images that popularize Vietnam suggest otherwise. One recurrent image famil-iar to textbooks and movie screens depicts anonymous peasants toiling in slow, silent rhythm over featureless rice paddies, surrounded by jungle.
First and foremost, I would like to thank my advisor, Dr. Benjamin F. Martin, for his enduring guidance, knowledge, and most of all, patience, while working with me long-distance. Through you, I learned to become a better scholar and writer, and for that, I will always be grateful.
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